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Liver disease is any disturbance of liver function that causes illness. The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, the loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body. Liver disease is also referred to as hepatic disease. Liver disease is a broad term that covers all the potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its designated functions. Usually, more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needs to be affected before a decrease in function occurs.
Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can damage organs. Researchers have discovered several different viruses that cause hepatitis.
Cirrhosis is a slowly developing disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the liver’s ability to process nutrients, hormones, drugs and natural toxins (poisons). It also reduces the production of proteins and other substances made by the liver. Cirrhosis eventually keeps the liver from working properly.
Liver cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form in the liver. They’re benign growths, meaning they aren’t cancerous. These cysts generally don’t require treatment unless symptoms develop, and they rarely affect liver function. Liver cysts are the result of a malformation in the bile ducts, although the exact cause of this malformation is unknown. Bile is a fluid made by the liver, which aids in digestion. This fluid travels from the liver to the gallbladder through ducts or tube-like structures.
Liver cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. The liver is a football-sized organ that sits in the upper right portion of your abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach. Cancer that spreads to the liver is more common than cancer that begins in the liver cells. Cancer that begins in another area of the body — such as the colon, lung or breast — and then spreads to the liver is called metastatic cancer rather than liver cancer. This type of cancer is named after the organ in which it began — such as metastatic colon cancer to describe cancer that begins in the colon and spreads to the liver.
A liver transplant is surgery to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person. A whole liver may be transplanted, or just part of one. In most cases the healthy liver will come from an organ donor who has just died. Sometimes a healthy living person will donate part of their liver. A living donor may be a family member. Or it may be someone who is not related to you but whose blood type is a good match. People who donate part of their liver can have healthy lives with the liver that is left.
The liver is the only organ in the body that can replace lost or injured tissue (regenerate). The donor’s liver will soon grow back to normal size after surgery. The part that you receive as a new liver will also grow to normal size in a few weeks.
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach and in front of the spine. The pancreas produces digestive juices and hormones that regulate blood sugar. Cells called exocrine pancreas cells produce the digestive juices, while cells called endocrine pancreas cells produce the hormones. The majority of pancreatic cancers start in the exocrine cells.
The gallbladder is a small pouch that sits just under the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver. After meals, the gallbladder is empty and flat, like a deflated balloon. Before a meal, the gallbladder may be full of bile and about the size of a small pear. In response to signals, the gallbladder squeezes stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts. Bile helps digest fats, but the gallbladder itself is not essential. Removing the gallbladder in an otherwise healthy individual typically causes no observable problems with health or digestion yet there may be a small risk of diarrhea and fat malabsorption.
Disorders of the liver and biliary system (which creates and stores bile) may require surgical correction. These disorders can be developmental or congenital, or they may manifest later in childhood or adolescence.
Benign gallbladder diseases include infections (cholecystitis) and gallstones causing symptoms (biliary colic).
Bile duct cysts (choledochal cysts) stem from abnormal development of the biliary system and have been associated with cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) as well as infection of the bile duct (cholangitis).
Biliary atresia can prevent bile from being able to drain from the liver into the intestine. It stems from abnormal development of the biliary system.
Hemochromatosis is a disorder where too much iron builds up in the body. Sometimes it’s called “iron overload.” Normally, our intestines absorb just the right amount of iron from the foods we eat. But in hemochromatosis, our body absorbs too much, and it has no way to get rid of it. So, our body stores the excess iron in our joints and in organs like our liver, heart, and pancreas. This damages them. If it’s not treated, hemochromatosis can make our organs stop working.
Liver diseases are mostly seen as in a grown-up, however, a huge number of children from babies to teens experience from different types of liver diseases. The volume of the liver and the blood flow decreases with age, immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Liver regeneration capacity shows a decline in age, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes, but the level of hepatic enzymes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well maintained. Pediatric Hepatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of liver and liver-related disease in infants and children.
Inflammation of the liver characterized by diffuse or patchy necrosis is Hepatitis . Auto immune hepatitis (AIH) is one exception. When your immune system attacks your liver cells this type of liver disease occurs. AIH is chronic condition that can result in cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver.. Auto immune hepatitis likely results from a combination of auto immunity, environmental triggers, and a genetic predisposition. It occurs more frequently in females. Treatment includes corticosteroids and medications that suppress the immune system. Liver transplant may be needed In severe cases). Liver is not inflamed in ischemic hepatitis. Rather, liver cell death occurs. The term hepatitis is used because technically, it refers to any disorder in which liver enzymes called amino transfer case leak from damaged liver cells into the blood.
The journal present up-to-date coverage of basic and clinical researches on molecular and cell biology, pathophysiology, epidermal, diagnosis, and treatment of the various diseases of the liver and biliary tract, B viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the common liver diseases in Asian-pacific region. Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (Dili) is a rare adverse druid reaction and it can lead to jaundice, liver failure, or even death. In the Western world Antimicrobials and herbal and dietary supplements are among the most common therapeutic classes to cause DILI. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extra cellular proteins collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases.
Clinical Gastroenterology is a series of concise monographs on diseases commonly encountered in the clinical practice of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology. Particular emphasis is placed on areas in which knowledge is advancing rapidly. Clinical Gastroenterology includes practical information of companies or laboratories that perform specialized testing, relative costs of diagnostic and therapeutic options.
The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and next to the small intestine which produces juices that help break down food and hormones and help control blood sugar levels. The pancreas does two main things:It releases powerful digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of food.It releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. These hormones help the body control how it uses food for energy.Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas converts inflamed. Pancreatic destruction happens when the digestive enzymes are triggered before they are released into the small intestine and initiate attacking the pancreas.